A significant majority of households in developing countries—more than 75 percent of the population—are living today in societies where income is more Developing countries distributed than it was in the s. But influenza can cause severe illness or death especially in people at high risk see below.
Energy poverty and Renewable energy in developing countries In Developing countries, about 1. Almostdeaths occur in Africa. Corticosteroids should not be used routinely, unless indicated for other reasons eg: Influenza D viruses primarily affect cattle and are not known to infect or cause illness in people.
In a global survey conducted in preparation for this report, policy makers from around the world acknowledged that inequality in their countries is generally high and potentially a threat to long-term social and economic development.
Influenza A and B viruses circulate and cause seasonal epidemics of disease. Laboratory confirmation of influenza virus from throat, nasal and nasopharyngeal secretions or tracheal aspirate or washings is commonly performed using direct antigen detection, virus isolation, or detection of influenza-specific RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase Developing countries reaction RT-PCR.
Social protection has been significantly extended globally, yet persons with disabilities are up to five times more likely than average to incur catastrophic health expenditures. Small-scale renewable energy technologies and distributed energy options, such as onsite solar power and improved cookstoves, offer rural households modern energy services.
Live attenuated influenza vaccine is available as a nasal spray. Collection of appropriate respiratory samples and the application of a laboratory diagnostic test is required to establish a definitive diagnosis.
For many years, WHO has updated its recommendation on the composition of the vaccine trivalent that targets the 3 most representative virus types in circulation two subtypes of influenza A viruses and one influenza B virus.
In temperate climates, seasonal epidemics occur mainly during winter, while in tropical regions, influenza may occur throughout the year, causing outbreaks more irregularly.
Starting with the — northern hemisphere influenza season, a 4th component is recommended to support quadrivalent vaccine development. Most people recover from fever and other symptoms within a week without requiring medical attention. Vaccination is especially important for people at high risk of influenza complications, and for people who live with or care for the people at high risk.
It requires ongoing evaluation and revision of water resource policy at all levels international down to individual aquifers and wells.
Prevention The most effective way to prevent the disease is vaccination. Patients that are not from a high risk group should be managed with symptomatic treatment and are advised, if symptomatic, to stay home in order to minimize the risk of infecting others in the community.
The cough can be severe and can last 2 or more weeks. Administration of the drug should also be considered in patients presenting later in the course of illness. Evidence from developing countries shows that children in the lowest wealth quintile are still up to three times more likely to die before their fifth birthday than children in the richest quintiles.
Health care workers are at high risk acquiring influenza virus infection due to increased exposure to the patients and risk further spread particularly to vulnerable individuals. Epidemiology All age groups can be affected but there are groups that are more at risk than others.
However, during periods of low influenza activity and outside of epidemics situations, the infection of other respiratory viruses e.
Treatment is recommended for a minimum of 5 days, but can be extended until there is satisfactory clinical improvement. Illnesses range from mild to severe and even death.
Signs and symptoms Seasonal influenza is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, cough usually dryheadache, muscle and joint pain, severe malaise feeling unwellsore throat and a runny nose.
Influenza A viruses are further classified into subtypes according to the combinations of the hemagglutinin HA and the neuraminidase NAthe proteins on the surface of the virus.
A number of inactivated influenza vaccines and recombinant influenza vaccines are available in injectable form. Producing renewable energy locally can offer a viable alternative.
Despite overall declines in maternal mortality in the majority of developing countries, women in rural areas are still up to three times more likely to die while giving birth than women living in urban centers. Clinics and hospitals can be overwhelmed during peak illness periods.
Influenza Other Respi Viruses.Please cite this paper as: Dumont, Jean-Christophe, Spielvogel, Gilles, Widmaier, Sarah (), “International Migrants in Developed, Emerging and Developing Countries. WHO fact sheet on influenza: includes key facts, definition, symptoms, transmission, seasonal epidemics, effects, prevention, WHO response.
With member countries, staff from more countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries. Key messages. On average—and taking into account population size—income inequality increased by 11 percent in developing countries between and A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), or underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
However, this definition is not universally agreed upon. There is also no clear agreement on which countries. UN-OHRLLS UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States.Download