In some places where communes arose e. Finally, when the Council of Ten was satisfied that its message had gotten across, they forced Fosari to resign, affirming its power over the monarch. Venice was never subjected to the Holy Roman Empire, but chose anyway to patronize the Lombard League, to oppose strong imperial control of the mainland.
From France, Germany, and the Low Countries, through the medium of the Champagne fairsland and river trade routes brought goods such as woolwheatand precious metals into the region. In Italy, the work of the artists, writers and architects that were sponsored by these wealthy ruling families reflected the ideas of humanism.
Wealthy families, such as the de Medicis of Florence, began to rule these city states.
The Po plainhowever, was an exception: The exceptions were VeniceFlorenceLuccaand a few others, which remained republics in the face of an increasingly monarchic Europe.
Thirteenth-century[ edit ] In the 13th century, much of Europe experienced strong economic growth. More than one-third of the male population could read in the vernacular an unprecedented rate since the decline of the Western Roman Empireas could a small but significant proportion of women.
Milan, the most northern of the major Italian city-states, came to dominate the Po River valley. The decline of feudalism and the rise of cities influenced each other; for example, the demand for luxury goods led to an increase in trade, which led to greater numbers of tradesmen becoming wealthy, who, in turn, demanded more luxury goods.
It found a new niche in luxury items like ceramics, glassware, lace and silk as well an experiencing a temporary rebirth in the woolen industry.
In particular, Florence became one of the wealthiest of the cities of Northern Italy, mainly due to its woolen textile production, developed under the supervision of its dominant trade guildthe Arte della Lana.
By the late 12th century, a new and remarkable society had emerged in Northern Italy; rich, mobile, expanding, with a mixed aristocracy and urban borghese burgher class, interested in urban institutions and republican government.
The other first Italian city-states appeared in northern Italy as a result of a struggle to gain greater autonomy when not independent from the German Holy Roman Empire.
The main trade routes from the east passed through the Byzantine Empire or the Arab lands and onward to the ports of GenoaPisaand Venice. Giangaleazzo Viscontiwho ruled the city from towas renowned both for his cruelty and for his abilities, and set about building an empire in Northern Italy.
In many cases by the Signori were able to found a stable dynasty over their dominated city or group of regional citiesobtaining also a nobility title of sovereignty by their formal superior, for example in Gian Galeazzo Visconti bought forgold florins the title of Duke of Milan from the emperor Wenceslaus.
The Venetian nobility differed from that of the majority of Europe in that they were often not excessively wealthy, but rather hard working businessmen of varying degrees of success.
In the last Visconti died, and the Milanese attempted to install a republic. Venice and Genoa acquired vast naval empires in the Mediterranean and Black Seas, some of which threatened those of the growing Ottoman Empire. The traditions of chivalry and knighthood were stronger there. In the south, Sicily had for some time been under foreign domination, by the Arabs and then the Normans.
These merchant families became the patrons of artists, architects and inventors, sponsoring them so that they could put all their time and energy into excelling at their passions.
The rediscovery of Vitruvius meant that the architectural principles of Antiquity could be observed once more, and Renaissance artists were encouraged, in the atmosphere of humanist optimism, to excel the achievements of the Ancients, like Apellesof whom they read.
The city survived the onslaught, however, by relying on its strength in sea trade.
The city was governed by the Great Council, which was made up of members of the most influential families in Venice. Humanist scholars searched monastic libraries for ancient manuscripts and recovered Tacitus and other Latin authors. But many of the new city-states also housed violent factions based on family, confraternity and brotherhood, which undermined their cohesion for instance the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
Literacy and numeracy[ edit ] By the 13th century, northern and central Italy had become the most literate society in the world.
The new demand for products and services also helped create a growing class of bankersmerchants, and skilled artisans. Even so, the lower classes had less to complain about in the wealthy city than they did in many other areas. Milan led the Lombard cities against the Holy Roman Emperors and defeated them, gaining independence battles of Legnano, and Parma; see Lombard League.
Many in the Great Council thought he had usurped too great a degree of power. Caption - The Italian Peninsula was divided into a number of city-states during the Renaissance period.Venice and Milan () Summary Situated on the Adriatic Sea, Venice traded with the Byzantine Empire and the Moslem world extensively.
During the late thirteenth century, Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. During the Renaissance, Italy was a collection of city-states, each with its own ruler—the Pope in Rome, the Medici family in Florence, the Doge in Venice, the Sforza family in Milan, the Este family in Ferrara, mint-body.com the ruling families of these city-states there was unceasing conflict and intense rivalry—either by open warfare or, in times of.
Caption - The Italian Peninsula was divided into a number of city-states during the Renaissance period. The beginnings of the Renaissance The Renaissance (in Italian, il Rinascimento) began in the northern city-states of Italy in the early 14th century and gradually spread throughout Western Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.
What contributed to the rise of the Italian states during the Renaissance were the following: thriving trade, no central power, and struggle for 5/5(1).
The Italian city-states were a political phenomenon of small independent states mostly in the central and northern Italian Peninsula between the 9th and the 15th centuries.
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, urban settlements in Italy generally enjoyed a greater continuity than in the rest of western Europe.
What happened during the Renaissance? there was a gradual shift in how people thought about the universe and their place in it. Instead of just looking to the Church to find meaning in their lives, many turned to their own powers of observation and reason.Download